- Go to the discussion notes for this course
- Go to the additional materials (handouts) for this course
- Go to the required online readings for this course
- Instructor: Philip Harland. Office hours (in Vanier 248): Thursdays 3-4pm or by appointment
- Classes and tutorials: Lectures: Fridays 10:30-12:20 (CC 106). Tutorial group 1: Fridays 2:30-4:20 (Ross South 102). Tutorial group 2: Thursdays 4:30-6:30 (now changed to McLaughlin College 214
Course Description and Aims
This course explores the origins of Christianity as reflected in early Christian literature of the first and early second centuries (including the New Testament). We will consider both common denominators and diversity in the worldviews and practices of various Christian communities, looking at the transformations which took place as an obscure Judean sect from Galilee made its way into the Greco-Roman world. We will be interested in exploring how various early Christians and early Christian authors lived their lives within the broader context of Judean, Greek, and Roman culture. We begin with the earliest surviving sources, namely Paul’s letters, and work our way chronologically (with some exceptions) through other early Christian documents, including the Gospels. The methods of history, the social sciences (sociology and anthropology), and literary and rhetorical analysis will further our understanding of key issues. Throughout, we will place our discussions of early Christianity within framework of the ancient Mediterranean world. Students will gain some control of both the content of early Christian texts and the environment in which Christianity was born, as well as an ability to analyze primary materials from an historical perspective.
As a “Foundations Course”, this course will also devote special attention to the development of students’ critical skills, including skills of argumentation, written presentation and verbal presentation. This element will be incorporated as naturally as possible and the tutorial sessions will provide an important framework for this aspect of the course.
- The Harper Collins Study Bible with the Apocryphal / Deuterocanonical Books (NRSV) (or other NRSV, RSV, NEB, or Jerusalem Bible with Apocrypha)
- Bart D. Ehrman, The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings.
- Richard A. Horsley and John S. Hanson, Bandits, Prophets and Messiahs: Popular Movements in the Time of Jesus. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 1999  (for Winter term).
- Readings distributed and designated website materials on course website
Useful Online Resources
- http://www.earlychristianwritings.com (translations of early Christian writings)
- http://www.ntgateway.com (links to many useful resources regarding early Christianity)
- http://www.holylandphotos.org (photos from various sites mentioned in the Bible)
- http://virtualreligion.net/iho/index.html (site providing background information from Judean sources for studying the world of Jesus)
- http://www.philipharland.com/Blog (Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean weblog)
Course Requirements and Evaluation
- Academic integrity tutorial and test: http://www.yorku.ca/tutorial/academic_integrity/index.html. All students must go through the tutorial and complete the test before the first assignment, achieving a 10/10 (100%) and submitting a hardcopy print-out of the results of their test. Assignment 1 will not be accepted without a completed academic integrity test attached (due week 5, Fall term)
- Assignment 1 (paper: analysis of primary source [with academic integrity test]): 10% (due week 5, Fall term)
- Assignment 2 (paper: analysis of primary source): 15% (due week 9, Fall term)
- Assignment 3 (paper: book review of Horsley): 20% (due week 6, Winter term)
- In-class test 1: 20% (week 11, Fall term)
- In-class test 2: 20% (week 11, Winter term)
- Class / tutorial participation and presentation: 15% Total: 100%
For further description of assignments, see the end of the course outline.
***Important things to know***
- Readings and participation: Participation and interaction is an important part of the process of learning. For this reason it is essential that you do the readings (especially the primary sources) before attending classes and tutorials for a particular week, coming prepared for discussion.
- Penalties for lateness: All assignments are due at the beginning of class. Late submissions will be penalized by one full grade (e.g. from a B to a C) and a further grade for each additional day beyond the due date. The only exceptions to this standard will be in cases of serious crisis, which should be discussed with the instructor as soon as possible to determine an appropriate solution together. My aim is fairness both to you and to your fellow students.
- Academic honesty and plagiarism policies: Absolutely no form of plagiarism will be tolerated. All cases will be prosecuted to the fullest. Students are responsible for reading the university policies concerning academic honesty at: http://www.yorku.ca/secretariat/policies/document.php?document=69. There is further information on how to achieve academic integrity at: http://www.yorku.ca/tutorial/academic_integrity/.
- Cell-phones, laptops, and other devices: All cell-phones and other hand-held devices must be completely turned off and remain unused during class and tutorial times. Laptops are permitted for note-taking only. Any other use of laptops (or other devices) for internet surfing or messaging is a distraction (both to you and to your fellow students) that will not be permitted.
Week 1 (Sept. 13)
- Course introduction: Early Christianity and the academic study of religion
- Readings: Ehrman, chs. 1, 2
- Tutorial (Friday and Thursday after Sept 13 lecture): How do we study early Christianity academically? What does a “Religious Studies” approach entail? Where did the New Testament come from?
Unit 1: Orientation
Week 2 (Sept 20)
- Early Christianity in its context, part 1
- Readings: 2 Maccabees 4-10 (in the Apocrypha of the Bible); “Diversity in Second Temple Judaism: Josephus on the ‘Sects’ of Judaism” online; Ehrman, chs. 3-4
- Tutorial (Friday and Thursday after Sept 20 lecture): What sorts of relations were there between Judean and Hellenistic cultures? How diverse and/or united were Judeans of the second temple period? (Discussion of 2 Maccabees and Josephus passages)
Week 3 (Sept 27)
- Early Christianity in its context, part 2
- Readings: “Early Christians through Greco-Roman Eyes – Tacitus, Suetonius, and Pliny the Younger” online; Ehrman, chs. 3-4 (continued)
- Tutorial: How were Christians viewed by other Greeks and Romans? (Discussion of Suetonius, Tacitus, Pliny [link above under readings])
*Assignment 1 question discussed (see description at end of outline)*
Unit 2: The First Generation (30-65 CE) – Paul and some contemporaries
Week 4 (Oct 4)
- Introduction to Paul – Sources and methods in studying Paul’s life and letters
- Readings: Galatians 1:13-2:14 and Acts 15; Ehrman, ch. 20
- Tutorial: What do the two accounts of a meeting in Jerusalem reveal about sources for the study of Paul (the letters and Acts)? How do we approach using these writings as historical sources? What does the autobiographical material in Galatians reveal about Paul? (Discussion of Galatians 1:13-2:14 and Acts 15 in the Bible)
Week 5 (Oct. 11)
- 1 Thessalonians: The early Christian apocalyptic outlook
- Readings: 1 Thessalonians; Rule of the Community (1QS), Columns I-IV (student password required); Ehrman, ch. 21
- Tutorial: What ideas do we find in both the Dead Sea Scrolls (Rule of the Community) and in Paul’s letter? What is the apocalyptic worldview of Paul? How does this worldview relate to Paul’s Judeanness? (Discussion of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:11 and Dead Sea Scrolls passage)
*Assignment 1 (paper) due week 5 at the beginning of class [with academic integrity test attached]*
Week 6 (Oct 18)
- 1 Corinthians: Rocky relations with a divided community and Paul’s ethical instruction
- Readings: 1 Corinthians; Ehrman, ch. 22
- Tutorial: What views did early Christians (and Judeans) have regarding food offered to the Greek and Roman deities (1 Corinthians 8-10; Acts 15:22-35; Didache 6)? How does this relate to questions of how the Christian groups related to surrounding Greco-Roman society?
Week 7 (Oct. 25)
- 2 Corinthians, Philippians and Philemon: Christianity and societal conventions (patronage / benefaction, financial support, and slavery)
- Readings: 2 Corinthians 10-12; Philippians; Philemon; “Paul and Slavery in the Greco-Roman world” (handout webpage); Ehrman, ch. 22
- Tutorial: What are Paul’s views and other early Christian views on slavery? What was slavery like in the world of the early Christians? (Discussion of Philemon, 1 Corinthians 7:17-24, and “Paul and Slavery in the Greco-Roman World”)
*Oct. 31-Nov. 1 co-curricular days: NO CLASSES OR TUTORIALS*
Week 8 (Nov. 8)
- Galatians: Paul, the Judean Law, and “Judaizers”
- Readings: Galatians; Ehrman, ch. 22
- Tutorial: Who are Paul’s opponents, who is listening to them, and what is happening among the Galatian followers of Jesus? What are Paul’s views on “works of law” (circumcision) and the Law or Torah? (Discussion of Galatians 3:1-5:6)
Week 9 (Nov 15)
- Tutorial: Discussion of Paul and economics. Student presentations
*Assignment 2 (paper) due week 9 at the beginning of class*
Week 10 (Nov 22)
- Romans: Judeans, Gentiles and “God’s people”
- Readings: Romans; Ehrman, ch. 23, 24
- Tutorial: Who are the “weak” and the “strong” at Rome? What is going on and what does this tell us about the Christian community there? (Discussion of Romans 14:1-15:13)
Week 11 (Nov 29)
*Test 1 in class*
- Tutorial: Film
Week 12 (Dec 6)
Film on Paul and his communities
Unit 3: The Second Generation (65-100 CE) – The Gospels and Christian Perceptions of Jesus
Week 1 (Jan 10)
- Introduction to the Gospels; Oral traditions, Q and Thomas
- Readings: Coptic Gospel of Thomas online, especially sections 9 (Mt 13:3-8, Mk 4:3-8, Lk 8:5-8), 20 (Mt 13:31-32, Mk 4:30-32, Lk 13:18-19), 35 (Mt 12:29, Mk 3:27, Lk 11:21-22), 65 (Mt 21:33-39, Mk 12:1-8, Lk 20:9-15), 107 (Mt 18:12-13, Lk 15:3-7); “The Synoptic Problem Website” (regarding source theories); Ehrman, chs. 5-6, 8
- Tutorial: What is the “synoptic problem” and what are some of the potential solutions? How does the Gospel of Thomas shed light on the sayings in the synoptic gospels?
Week 2 (Jan. 17)
- Mark’s portrait of Jesus
- Readings: Gospel of Mark; Ehrman, ch. 7
- Tutorial: What does the John the Baptist material reveal about literary relations among the Gospels and processes of redaction? How is John the Baptist important for the study of the historical Jesus? (Discussion of gospel parallels nos.13-17 and Horsley, pp. 175-181, regarding John the Baptist)
Week 3 (Jan. 24)
- Matthew’s portrait of Jesus
- Readings: Gospel of Matthew; Ehrman, ch. 9
- Tutorial: How is Jesus’ inaugural sermon presented by Matthew and Luke (similarities and differences)? What does the material regarding Jesus’ inaugural sermon tell us about the transmission and redaction of Jesus’ teachings? What can we say, if anything, about the teaching style of the historical Jesus? (Discussion of gospel parallels, nos. 51-54; Coptic Gospel of Thomas sayings nos. 11, 32, 33, 54, 68-69 online: http://www.misericordia.edu/users/davies/thomas/Trans.htm )
Week 4 (Jan 31)
- Luke-Acts: Luke’s portrait of Jesus
- Readings: Luke; “Acts and Ancient History-Writing: Background on the speeches and the preface” (Thucydides and Josephus) online; Ehrman, chs. 10-11
- Tutorial: How does Luke’s two volume work, including Acts, relate to ancient historiography? What importance was placed on prefaces and on speeches in ancient histories? How do the passages in Thucydides and Josephus help us understand Luke-Acts as history writing? (Discussion of Luke 1; Acts, esp. Acts 1 and 7; passages from Thucydides and Josephus online readings)
Week 5 (Feb 7)
- John’s portrait of Jesus
- Readings: John; Ehrman, ch. 12
- Tutorial: What are the background and significance of the introduction to John’s gospel? How should we understand the “Word” in this preface in relation to Judean notions of Wisdom personified and Hellenistic notions of the Logos? (Discussion John 1; Proverbs 8; Sirach 24 [in the Apocrypha in the Bible])
Week 6 (Feb 14)
- The Historical Jesus
- Readings: Passages from Josephus involving messiahs and prophets in Horsley and Hanson, Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs (see page numbers below); Ehrman, chs. 15-17
- Tutorial: How do the various royal claimants and prophetic figures discussed by Josephus help to provide a context for the historical Jesus? What recurring motifs do we find in the stories of these figures and of Jesus of Nazareth? (Discussion of Messiahs and Prophets in Josephus as outlined below)
KINGS / MESSIAHS
- 1) Judas son of Ezekias, c. 4 BCE (Horsley, p. 112)
- 2) Simon, the servant of Herod, c. 4 BCE (pp. 112-113)
- 3) Athronges, the shepherd, c. 4 BCE (pp. 113-114)
- 4) Menahem, son of Judas the Galilean, 60s CE (p. 118)
- 5) Simon bar Giora, 60s CE (pp. 120-121)
- 1) The Samaritan, 30s CE (p. 163)
- 2) Theudas, 40s CE (p. 164)
- 3) The Egyptian, 50s CE (p. 168)
- 4) Jesus, son of Hananiah, 60s CE (pp. 173-174)
- 5) John the Baptist, 30s CE (pp. 175-177)
*Assignment 3 (paper) due week 6 at the beginning of class*
**Feb 14: Last date to drop courses without receiving a grade**
**Reading Week Feb. 15-21 – no classes**
Unit 4: The Second Generation and beyond
Week 7 (Feb 28)
- Hebrews’ portrait of Jesus
- Readings: Hebrews; Epistle of Barnabas online, especially chapters 13-16; Ehrman, ch. 27
- Tutorial: How should we understand the developing relation between the Jesus movement and its Judean origins? The term “supersession” (look it up in a dictionary) eventually came to be used to describe the Christian view of Judaism? How adequate is this for describing the attitudes of Hebrews or the Epistle of Barnabas toward aspects of Judaism at the turn of the second century? (Discussion of Hebrews and the Epistle of Barnabas)
Week 8 (March 7)
- 1 Peter, persecution, and relations between Christians and outsiders
- Readings: 1 Peter; Ephesians 5:21-6:9; Colossians 3:18-4:1; Ehrman, ch. 28
- Tutorial: What was the ancient “household” and what was its significance for the development of early Christian social structures, leadership, and ideology? (Discussion of 1 Peter 2:11-3:7; Ephesians 5:21-6:9; Colossians 3:18-4:1).
Week 9 (March 14)
- John’s Apocalypse
- Readings: Revelation (aka John’s Apocalypse), especially chapters 12-19; Ehrman, ch. 30
- Tutorial: What were early Christian views and practices with regard to the Roman imperial power and the emperor? (Discussion of Rev 13, 17-18; 1 Peter 2:11-17; Romans 13)
Week 10 (March 21)
- Film: Apocalypse!
- Tutorial: film
Week 11 (March 28)
*Test 2 in class*
- Tutorial: Film
Week 12 (April 4)
- Film and discussion: Gospel of Judas
- Readings: The Gospel of Judas (pdf online at the National Geographic Society)
Presentations in tutorials
Each student will have two opportunities to give 15 minute presentations in tutorial meetings. The purpose of this is to help you develop your presentation skills and to provide other students with an opportunity to learn about some other early Christian writings that are not fully covered in the lectures. The presentation topics will be determined in tutorial, but two of the presentations are already determined.
Presentation 1 (Fall): This 15 minute presentation will involve introducing an early Christian writing (chosen from the list below) to the other students in the tutorial. For that presentation, presenters will discuss various introductory issues, including issues of authorship, date, and genre (what type of writing it is). Going beyond this, presenters will explain some aspects of the historical relevance of the writing, engaging with one or two key historical topics discussed by scholars who study that writing. Student presenters are responsible for finding and studying the writing itself (often available in translation online) and for finding and discussing at least two scholarly books or articles that deal with the writing (through the York University library system or its online journal systems). Students must speak to me to confirm that the chosen sources are adequate. The requirements will be explained more fully in tutorials. The list of writings to choose for this particular presentation include:
- From the New Testament: James, 2 Peter, Jude, 2 Thessalonians, 1-3 John
- From the “Fathers” and martyrdom accounts: Letters of Ignatius, 1 Clement, 2 Clement, Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle to Diognetus, Martyrdom of Polycarp, Martyrs of Lyons, Martyrdom of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas, Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho
- From the Apocrypha and Nag Hammadi collection: Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah, Gospel of Philip, Protevangelium of James, Gospel of Nicodemus, Acts of Paul, Acts of Peter, Ascension of Isaiah, Apocalypse of Peter
2) A second presentation will focus on an historical analysis of a particular passage or subject in a writing that we have examined in the lectures. Students will choose a topic relating to the writing and then investigate it in historical sources, explaining what they found. Once again, each student is required to make use of at least two different scholarly sources (approving them with me several weeks in advance of the presentation). Possible topics for each writing will be discussed early on in the tutorials.
Presentation 2 (Winter): This 15 minute presentation will involve you choosing an historical topic which interests you from the list below or suggesting a topic to me. You will then need to find three scholarly articles and/or books on the topic (from the library system) and begin to narrow down what you will present on. As you progress in research, you will then choose two ancient sources as your particular focus to illustrate some of the issues surrounding your question.
So long as you get approval directly from me, you may also choose other topics on the history of early Christianity.
What was Christianity like at Rome?
What was Christianity like at Syrian Antioch?
What was Christianity like at Corinth?
Movements and groups
What was the nature of the Phrygian or Montanist movement?Who were the Ebionites?
Who were the docetics?
Who were the Marcionites?
Other Topics in early Christianity
What was the meaning and importance of the notion of martyrdom?
How does early Christian literature portray children?
What attitudes toward the rich and the poor do we find in early Christian literature?
What were the main rituals of the earliest Christians?
What debates were there about food sacrificed to “idols” and why?
What importance did meals have in early Christianity?
What was the position of slaves within early Christian groups?
Did women take on leadership roles and what debates arose around this?
When did leadership structures first start to develop?
Who were the “god-fearers”?
World of the early Christians
What were imperial cults (worship of the emperors) like?
How would you describe the nature and meaning of animal sacrifice within Greco-Roman religion?
Assignment 1 (analysis of primary source): Christians Through Roman Eyes (3 pages double-spaced = 750 words)
- Step 1: Re-read and thoroughly study Pliny the Younger’s correspondence with emperor Trajan regarding the Christians brought before Pliny as a Roman governor of Bithynia. For some background, read Bart Ehrman’s discussion of Greco-Roman religion (pp. 34-46), his discussion of persecution (pp. 454-459), and his discussion of Christians as “atheists” (pp. 468-469).
- Step 2: Write an essay in which you imagine that you are Pliny the Younger and describe (to another Roman or Greek) your perceptions of these Christians. Be attentive to what things the Christians do, but also to what they do not do. Be sure to indicate why you (as a Roman) hold these views.
Assignment 2 (analysis of primary source): Economics in Paul’s Relations with Communities (6 pp. double-spaced = 1500 words)
- Step 1: Thoroughly study passages in Paul’s letters to Thessalonica, Corinth, and Philippi that pertain to his views and practices with respect to how he financially supports his activities (including 1 Thessalonians 2:9-12; 1 Corinthians 4:8-13 and chapter 9; 2 Corinthians chapters 10-13; Philippians 2:25-30 and 4:10-20). Also study passages from the Stoic philosopher Musonius Rufus and the philosopher Cicero found under “Debates on handwork” here: http://www.philipharland.com/Blog/?p=13788/#handwork.
- Step 2: Write an essay addressing the following questions: When it comes to financially supporting Paul’s teaching activities, does Paul engage in the same practices with every community or does his practice vary? Why does he engage in these practices? What do these practices relating to support tell us about his relationships with particular groups? In the process of explaining Paul’s approach, address issues such as manual labour and the acceptance or rejection of benefaction or patronage (“gifts”). Also position Paul in relation to views and practices among other teachers and philosophers in the Greco-Roman world. Note: Although you may refer to the collection for Jerusalem, this is not to be the focus of the paper.
Assignment 3 (academic book review): Review of Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs (5 pp. double-spaced = 1250 words)
- Step 1: To familiarize yourself with the genre of the academic book review, read at least five book reviews that interest you in Review of Biblical Literature online at: http://www.bookreviews.org/
- Step 2: With a focus on the arguments and main points, read Horsley’s, Bandits, Prophets and Messiahs.
- Step 3: Write an academic book review of the book (in the form of an essay), which entails:
- Explaining the main argument (or point) of the book and how the author builds up this argument in sub-arguments throughout the chapters.
- Discussing the author’s methods (or approach) and use of evidence to support his points.
- Providing a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the book. Does the author achieve what he set out to do? Is the argument convincing or not, and in what ways? What theoretical assumptions and/or value judgments influence the author’s reconstruction of history? Be sure to provide concrete examples (citing page numbers in parentheses) of the problems or strengths you discuss.
The review paper should have a clear thesis statement (concerning your evaluation of the book) which is supported throughout the paragraphs. The paper should be clearly written and structured with no spelling or grammatical errors. Be succinct and do not exceed the prescribed length.