General Information: Instructor: Philip Harland. Office hour (in Vanier 248): Thursdays 2:30-3:30 or by appointment. Meetings: Thursdays 11:30-2:20.
Course description: This course explores practices or “ancestral customs” associated with honouring the gods in the Hellenistic and Roman worlds. In the first term we begin by considering a range of Greek and Greco-Roman cults in Asia Minor (Turkey) before turning to elite perspectives on ancestral customs for deities. In the second term we begin by looking at Greek and Roman characterizations of the gods and customs of other peoples before turning to the perspectives and practices of subject peoples under Hellenistic and Roman hegemony. In this way we can understand discourses concerning honouring the gods within the context of ethnic relations and rivalries. Through examining rituals and beliefs in their contexts, students will gain an understanding of ancient worldviews that informed the development of western culture. Furthermore, we will engage theoretical problems in defining and describing ancient “religion” and culture in modern terms and in the value of ethnicity as an analytical concept.
- James B. Rives, Religion in the Roman Empire (Blackwell Ancient Religions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007).
- Linked readings in the course outline below (please print all pdfs, read and study them, and bring them to class for discussion)
Evaluation (see full assignment descriptions at the end of the course outline)
- Attendance, participation in discussions, question generation (15%)
- Quizzes: Beginning of class surprize quizzes on readings (15%)
- Academic integrity tutorial and test: link. Students must print out and hand in perfect test results before the first assignment (due week 4)
- Essay 1 (historical analysis of primary source), 5 pages, due FALL WEEK 5 (15%)
- Essay 2 (historical analysis of primary source), 6 pages, due WINTER WEEK 4 (15%)
- Test 1 (in class FALL WEEK 11) (20%)
- Test 2 (in class WINTER WEEK 11) (20%)
Important things to know:
- Readings and participation: Read and study materials BEFORE class meetings.
- Penalties for lateness: All assignments are due at the beginning of class. Late submissions will be penalized by one full grade (e.g. from a B to a C) and a further grade for each additional day beyond the due date.
- Academic honesty and plagiarism policies: Absolutely no form of plagiarism will be tolerated. Study our policies at: http://www.yorku.ca/secretariat/policies/document.php?document=69 and http://www.yorku.ca/tutorial/academic_integrity/.
- Cell-phones, laptops, and other devices: All cell-phones and other hand-held devices must be completely turned off and remain unused during class and tutorial times. Laptops are permitted for note-taking only.
Unit 1: Orientation
Week 1 (Sept 5): Course overview and introductions
- Discussion of distributed reading
- How do we approach the study of religion in an academic context? How do we define ancient “religion”? What problems do scholars have in approaching cultural life in the ancient world?
Week 2 (Sept 12): The Roman empire – Geographical and cultural overview (photos from Asia Minor)
Key questions: 1) What was entailed in honouring the gods (offerings, sacrifice, meals, prayers, mysteries, festivals, etc.)? What social groupings and contexts were involved? 2) What theoretical issues come to the fore in studying cultural life in the Hellenistic and Roman eras?
- Scholarly sources: Rives, intro and chapters 1-2
Unit 2: Civic, provincial, and regional cults
Week 3 (Sept 19): Civic cults in a Greek city – Case of Artemis Ephesia at Ephesos
- Readings: Acts 19:23-41 (in the Bible; link); AGRW 164 from Ephesos (link); Oster, “Holy Days in Honour of Artemis” (link); “Greco-Roman deities: Artemis of Ephesus”, parts 1-3 (link); Rives, ch. 3
Week 4 (Sept 26): Divination and oracular sanctuaries – Case of Apollo at Didyma
- Readings: AGRW 179 from Miletos (link), AGRW 202 from Magnesia (link); Fontenrose, Didyma, Inscriptions 20-25 on pp. 194-202 (link); Johnston, “The Divine Experience Part Two: Claros, Didyma and Others” (link).
Week 5 (Oct 3): Film on Gods and Goddesses (89 min) or the Sacred Way (on the Eleusinian mysteries; 59 min) or Meet the Romans or Empires: the Greeks (150 min) or Pompeii: Life and Death in a Roman Town (120 min)
Week 6 (Oct 10): Healing sanctuaries – Case of Asklepios (Asclepius) at Pergamon
- Readings: Aelius Aristides, Orations 48-49 (= Sacred Tales 2-3) (link); MacMullen and Lane, “Healing Shrines” (link); Rives, ch. 4
*October 14-18: Reading week with no classes*
Week 7 (Oct 24): Honouring the Roman emperors as gods – Imperial cults (provincial, civic, and local)
- Readings: OGIS 458, on Paullus Fabius Persicus and the calendar in Asia (link); AGRW 117, on the mysteries of the hymn singers from Pergamon (link); Harland, “Imperial Cults within Local Cultural Life: Associations in Roman Asia,” including the inscriptions IEph 213 on page 91 and IEph 3801 on pages 94-95 (link)
Week 8 (Oct 31): Regional and indigenous practices – Cults of Phrygia and Lydia
- Readings: “Some Confession (or Reconciliation) Inscriptions from Lydia and Phrygia” (link); AGRW 22 from Laureion in Attica (link); Mitchell, “Indigenous Cults of Anatolia” (link); Rives, ch. 6
Unit 3: Elite perspectives on honouring gods and goddesses
Week 9 (Nov 7): Elite perspectives 1 – Epictetus and Dio of Prusa, Stoic philosophers
- Readings: Dio Chrysostom, Oration 12, especially sections 21-85 (link); Johnson, “Religion as Moral Transformation: Epictetus” (link); Rives, pp. 21-42 (again)
Week 10 (Nov 14): Elite perspectives 2 – Lucian of Samosata, an Epicurean-influenced satirical writer
Week 11 (Nov 21): **In class test**
Week 12 (Nov 28): Elite perspectives 3 – Artemidoros of Daldis, dream-interpreter
- Readings: Artemidoros, Interpretation of Dreams (Oneirocritica), book 1.1-2, book 2.33-57, book 4.47 (link).; Walde, “Dream Interpretation in a Prosperous Age?” (link)
Unit 4: Ethnic relations 1 – Greeks and Romans imagine or describe the gods and ancestral customs of foreign peoples
Week 1 (Jan 9): Greek perspectives — Ethnography — Herodotos, Ephoros, and Strabo on Pontic peoples and Scythians (southern Russians)
- Readings: Herodotos, Histories 4.1-80 (link); Strabo, Geography 7.3.7-9, including description of Ephoros’ views (link); Braund, “Scythian Laughter” (link)
Week 2 (Jan 16): Greek perspectives — Diodoros of Sicily and others on Egyptians
Week 3 (Jan 23): Roman perspectives — Tacitus on Germans and Judeans
- Readings: Tacitus, Germany 1-10 (link); Tacitus, Histories 5.1-13 (link); Woolf, “Ethnography and the Gods in Tacitus’ Germania ” (link)
Unit 5: Ethnic relations 2 – Subject peoples explain their ancestral customs and respond to Greek, Roman, and other peoples
Week 4 (Jan 30): Egyptian perspectives and customs — Chairemon and Isidoros
- Readings: Chairemon, On Egyptian Priests (fragment 10) in Porphyry, On Abstinence from Killing Animals 6-8 (link); Isidoros, inscribed hymns for Isis from Narmouthis (link); Frankfurter, “The Local Scope of Religious Belief [in Egypt]” (link)
**ESSAY DUE IN CLASS**
Week 5 (Feb 6): Judean perspectives and customs – Artapanos, Josephos and Philo of Alexandria on Egyptians and Judeans
- Readings: Artapanos (link); Josephus, Against Apion, selections (link); Harland, “Climbing the Ethnic Ladder: Ethnic Hierarchies and Judean Responses” (link ???)
Week 6 (Feb 13): Babylonian and Phoenician perspectives and customs — Berossos and Philo of Byblos
- Readings: Berossos, Babylonian Matters, part of book 1 as preserved by Synkellos (link); Philo of Byblos, Phoenician Matters, sections preserved by Eusebius (link); Breucker, “Berossos Between Tradition and Innovation” (link)
**Reading Week Feb. 17-21 – no classes**
Week 7 (Feb 27): Syrian / Phoenician perspectives and customs — Lucian of Samosata
Unit 5: Minorities and their gods in the dIaspora — case studies
Week 8 (March 5): Syrians / Phoenicians
- Readings: AGRW 223-229, 258, 317 (link); Harland, “Other Diasporas: Immigrants, Ethnic Identities, and Acculturation” (link)
Week 9 (March 12): Israelites and Judeans
Week 10 (March 19): Egyptians
- Readings: AGRW 221 from Delos (link); other inscriptions involving Egyptian deities at Delos (link); Moyer, “The Delian Sarapis Aretalogy and the Politics of Syncretism” (link)
Week 11 (March 26): **In class test**
Week 12 (April 2) : Film on Jesus adherents
Essay 1: Analysis of primary source (5 pages double-spaced)
Preparation: Carefully read and study Aelius Aristides’s Sacred Tales (Orations 48-49; ) (link). Also carefully review your readings in Rives’s Religion in the Roman Empire (chapters 1-4) and your notes from class discussions for important background information.
Paper assignment: In some respects, Aristides is representative of common Greco-Roman perspectives on the gods and their involvements in human affairs. Write a 5 page paper that draws on Aristides in order to illustrate Greco-Roman perspectives or worldviews regarding (1) how humans honour the gods and (2) how the gods’ intervene in the lives of humans. You want to show that you are beginning to understand these perspectives from an historical point of view without judging them as good or bad, commendable or silly. Be sure to provide concrete examples of the points you make regarding these worldviews, drawing on specific passages in Aristides’s writing (noting in parentheses the relevant sections). As usual with any academic paper, you will want to have a clear argument which is succinctly expressed in your thesis statement and supported throughout the paragraphs.
Essay 2: Analysis of primary source
Preparation: Carefully read and study the selected sections in Josephus, Against Apion (link). Also carefully review your readings and notes regarding Greek and Roman perspectives on the ancestral customs of subject peoples (from weeks 1-4) and of Judeans specifically (from week 3). Also read the Harland article on “Climbing the Ethnic Ladder: Ethnic Hierarchies and Judean Responses” from week 5 (in advance; link ???).
Paper assignment: Greek and Roman perspectives on the customs of other peoples. Subject peoples (e.g. Egyptians / Judeans) approach to other subject peopels (e.g. Egyptians / Judeans) ….. The response of subject peoples was varied. Using Josephos as a test case….. Josephus as both a reaction to negative characterizations or stereotypes by other peoples and as an assertion of Judean superiority. Also be attentive to how Josephos expresses his own Judean ancestral customs to a Greek-speaking audience.