Online Resources for the Study of Ancient Religions and Cultures


Ancient Judaism, Early Christianity, and Bible

1. Gateways and General Resources

All-in-One Biblical Resources Search (Mark Goodacre)

Biblical Art on the www
Links to biblical art (searchable by subject, biblical text, artist, and keyword)

Deinde: Discussion and Resources for Biblical Scholars

From Jesus to Christ: The First Christian Centuries (PBS)

Holy Land Photos
Many photos from ancient Greece, Israel, and Turkey

iTanakh: Resources for Academic Study
Links to resources for the study of the Hebrew Bible and its context

Jewish History Resource Center (Dinur Center, Hebrew University of Jerusalem)

K.C. Hanson’s Homepage

New Testament Gateway (Mark Goodacre)

Old Testament Gateway (Tabor College, Victoria, Australia)

Online resources for the study of the Christian Apocrypha and "Gnosticism"

Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement (Steve Mason)
Resources for the study of Flavius Josephus (the first-century Jewish historian), Polybius and other writings dealing with cultural interactions in antiquity

Resource Pages for Biblical Studies (Torrey Seland)
An excellent collection of resources, links, and on-line publications pertaining to early Judaism and Christianity, including resources for the study of Philo of Alexandria (the first-century Jewish philosopher)
Resources for the study of the Bible, church history, and Christian theology

2. Synagogues

The Nature and Origins of the First-Century Synagogue (Anders Runesson)
This article challenges common assumptions about the beginnings of Jewish synagogues in the ancient Mediterranean

Second Temple Synagogues (Donald D. Binder)
Photos and discussion of synagogues, including those at Gamla, Capernaum, Masada, Herodium, Delos, Cyrenaica, and Ostia.

3. Apocalypticism

Apocalypse! (PBS)

Links to Revelation, Apocalyptic and Millennial Websites and Materials (Felix Just)

Ancient History and Religions (Greek, Roman, Ancient Near Eastern)

1. Gateways and General Resources

ABZU (Oriental Institute, University of Chicago)
A Guide to information related to the study of the Ancient Near East on the Web

Ancient Astrology and Divination on the Web (Tim Spalding)

Classics Gateway (University of Reading)

Diotima: Materials for the Study of Women and Gender

Egyptology Resources (Cambridge University)

Okeanos: Ancient Near Eastern Studies (Scott B. Noegel)
An interdisciplinary resource for the study of the Ancient, Biblical, Classical, and Late Antique Near East

Resources on the Internet for Ancient History and Classics (Trent University, K. H. Kinzl)

Roman Sites (Bill Thayer)
A catalogue of over 2,000 websites relating to Roman history A Consortium for Electronic Publishing in the Humanities
Electronic publication of works relating to the ancient world, including Children of Oedipus, Ancient Journeys (an honorary volume for E.N. Lane), Household and City Organization at Olynthus, and Demos: Classical Athenian Democracy

Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity (University of Michigan)

Travel and Religion in Antiquity (Canadian Society of Biblical Studies, maintained by Harland) 

2. The Mysteries of Specific Gods or Goddesses    

(Arranged alphabetically by god/goddess)


Alexander the False Prophet (Lucian)
Lucian of Samosata's (second-century) critique of the mysteries for the snake-god Glykon (a new Asklepios), which were introduced by Alexander, a "huckster" (in Paphlagonia, northern Asia Minor)

Images of Glykon (Perseus search)

Cybele/Great Mother (Magna Mater)

Images of Cybele (Perseus search)

Demeter and Kore/Persephone

Demeter: The Cult at Eleusis
Outline of the Greater and Lesser Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries (Edward Beach)
Article on the mysteries of Demeter and Kore at Eleusis

Homeric Hymn to Demeter
Online text of the 7th century BCE writing which tells the story of Persephone, Demeter, and the introduction of mysteries at Eleusis

Images of Demeter, Kore, and sanctuaries at Pergamon, Priene, Iasos, and others (Perseus search)

Images of Eleusis and its sanctuary (Perseus search)

Dionysos (Dionysus)

The Bacchae (Euripides)
Euripides' (fifth century BCE) play which tells the story of Dionysos' journeys and the women of Thebes, whom he drove mad ("maenads") (Harvard Classics translation)

Collection of ancient literary texts and images concerning the god

Images of Dionysos (Perseus search)

Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii (Dean Swift)
Photos of paintings relating to Dionysos' mysteries (also known as Villa Item)


Imperial Cults within Local Cultural Life (Harland - on this site)

Honours and Worship (Harland)
Articles that discuss imperial mysteries for the emperors (Sebastoi) alongside other honours for the emperors as gods


Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies
Many scholarly articles on Mithras and his mysteries

Images of Mithras (Perseus search)

Mithraism: The Cosmic Mysteries of Mithras (David Ulansey)

Virtual Mithraeum (Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle)
Virtual tour of a temple of Mithras with discussion

Sabazios (Sabazius)

Images of Sabazios (Perseus search)

Samothracian "Great Gods"

Images of Samothrace and its sanctuary (Perseus search)

Samothrace: A Short Cultural Guide (Dimitris Matsas and Argiris Bakirtzis, University of Thrace)
Discussion and photos of the ancient site of Samothrace (island off the north-western coast of Asia Minor), including material on the sanctuary of  the "Great gods" and the mysteries that were celebrated there (available in modern Greek or English)

3. Specific Cities or Regions (including Virtual Tours)

Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions (Charlotte Roueché)
Full book on the city of Aphrodisias and its inscriptions in late antiquity (revised, 2nd edition, originally published by the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies in 1989)

Ephesos: An On-line Panoramic Virtual Tour

Metis (Bruce Hartzler)
Panoramic (Quicktime) views of Athens, Delphi, Corinth, Didyma, Epidaurus, Miletos, Priene, Sardis, and many others (in QuickTime)

Missioni Archeologiche Italiane in Turchia
Photos and discussion of archeological finds in Asia Minor (carried out by Italian archeologists), including the cities of Elaiussa Sebaste, Hierapolis, Iasos, and Kyme (available in English, Italian and Turkish)

Ostia: Harbour City of Ancient Rome

Pompeii Forum Project
Photos of and information about ancient Pompeii, Italy

Pompeii: Insula 1.9 (British School at Rome, Pompeii Project)
Panoramic views and virtual tours of excavated houses (in Quick Time)

Religion in Hellenistic Athens (Jon D. Mikalson)
Full book on religion in the city of Athens (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)

Online Ancient Sources (Greek, Roman, Jewish, Christian)

Classical Myth: The Ancient Sources

Early Christian Writings
New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, and Fathers

Early Church Fathers
Ante-Nicene, Nicene, and Post-Nicene Christian authors

Great Books and Classics

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
Links to ancient sources for Mesopotamia, Israel, Egypt, Persia, Greco-Roman world, Christian origins

Online Critical Pseudepigrapha (David Miller, Ken Penner, and Ian Scott, project directors) 
Online critical editions of Jewish literature from the Pseudepigrapha in the original languages (e.g. 1 Enoch, Testament of Job, Testament of Abraham)

Perseus Digital Library (Gregory Crane, editor-in-chief)

Epigraphy, Papyrology, and Archeology

American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy
Links to web-based epigraphical resources

Austrian Archeological Institute / Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut

Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents
Images of inscriptions

Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri (Perseus)
Many classic Greek papyri collections online

German Archaeological Institute / Deutsches Archäologisches Institut

Introduction to Greek and Latin epigraphy: An absolute beginners’ guide (Onno van Nijf)

POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online
Discussion of the papyri discovered at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum
Annual bibliography of Greek epigraphy

University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik
Bulletin of Papyrology and Epigraphy

Maps of the Ancient World

Ancient World Mapping Center

Historical Atlas of Antiquity
Regional maps of the Roman empire

Map of Greece and Asia Minor
Greek Mythology Link

Religious Studies and the Social Sciences

Online Articles and bibliographies about Sociology of Religion (Hartford Institute for Religion Research)
Links to articles by well-known sociologists covering various topics, including millenialism, sects, cults, and new religious movements

Religion Gateway: World Religions - Religious Studies - Comparative Religion

The Religious Movements Homepage Project (University of Virginia)
Material on cults and New Religious Movements (NRM), including religious movement profiles, cult controversies, on-line articles, and teaching resources

Virtual Religion Index (Rutgers University)

Voice of the Shuttle (Web Page for Humanities Research): Religious Studies

Online Journals (free, open-access journals only)

1. Gateways to academic, open-access journals on the web

Directory of Open Access Journals

2. Biblical Studies, Judaism, and Early Christianity


Biblical Theology Bulletin

Book reviews on ancient Judaism.

Journal for the Study of Rhetorical Criticism of the New Testament

Journal of Hebrew Scriptures

Review of Biblical Literature
Book reviews relating to the Bible and its context.

Semeia: An Experimental Journal for Biblical Criticism

3. Ancient World (Greek, Roman and Near Eastern Societies)

Archaeology Magazine

Bryn Mawr Classical Review 
Book reviews relating to ancient Greece and Rome.

Journal on the ancient theatre

Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies

Near Eastern Archaeology

Revue internationale des droits de l'antiquité
Journal dealing with various aspects of law in ancient Greece and Rome

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik
Bulletin of Papyrology and Epigraphy

4. Religious Studies

History of Religions

Journal of Religion and Society

Academic Societies

American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy

Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion (CCSR)

Canadian Society of Biblical Studies (CSBS)

Travel and Religion in Antiquity Seminar Homepage

Society of Biblical Literature