Guide to circumnavigation authors

Citation with stable link: Philip A. Harland, 'Guide to circumnavigation authors,' Ethnic Relations and Migration in the Ancient World, last modified May 26, 2024,

This is a guide to reading in chronological order examples of “circumnavigation” or “voyage” (periplous / periplus, or periodos) literature with frequent references to peoples:

  • Hanno the Carthaginian, Circumnavigation [of western Africa], fourth century BCE or earlier (link)
  • Anonymous (“Pseudo-Skylax”), Circumnavigation [of the entire Mediterranean], fourth century BCE (link)
  • Anonymous (“Pseudo-Skymnos”), Circuit around the Earth for Nikomedes, mid-second century BCE (link)
  • Isidoros of Charax Spasinou, Description of Parthia (though over land), late first century BCE (link)
  • Anonymous, Circumnavigation of the Erythraian Sea [i.e. Red Sea and Indian Ocean all the way to India], mid-first century CE (link)
  • Arrian of Nikomedia, Circumnavigation of the Euxine Sea [i.e. the Black Sea], ca. 131-132 CE (link)
  • Avienus, Sea Coast [of Iberia / Spain], mid-fourth century CE (link)

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