Guide to Cicero

Citation with stable link: Philip A. Harland, 'Guide to Cicero,' Ethnic Relations and Migration in the Ancient World, last modified June 3, 2024,

This post provides a guide for reading through ethnographically significant passages in Cicero’s (mid-first century BCE) treatises, letters, and speeches on this website:

  • Assyrians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Celts and divination – On the Republic (link)
  • Egyptians, Taurians, Celts and cultural relativity – On the Republic (link)
  • Persians and Magians – On the Republic and other works (link)
  • Egyptian wisdom via Pythagoras’, Plato’s and Demokritos’ journeys – On the Republic (link)
  • Egyptians and animal worship – On the Nature of the Gods (link)
  • Indian and Persian wisdom – On Divination (link)
  • Libyans, Iberians, and Celts as “savage” peoples requiring control – Letters to His Brother (link)
  • Celts / Gauls, Julius Caesar’s command, and conquest – On the Consular Provinces (link)
  • Cilicians and imperial control of “pirate” peoples – Pompey’s Command (link)
  • Sicilians praised – Against Verres (link)
  • Phoenicians and Sardinians blamed – For Marcus Scaurus (link)
  • Gauls blamed – For Marcus Fonteius (link)
  • Judeans and Asiatics blamed – For Flaccus (link)

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